are several alternative therapies for addiction and withdrawal
based on two strategies, abstinence or substitution:
massage, Herbals, etc.
that discourage use by inducing unpleasant consequences
when abused drug is used
used to treat pre-existing psychiatric conditions that
may have initiated drug use.
are two aspects in controlling addictions; psychic withdrawal
and drug craving.
Drug that mimics another drug or naturally occurring
substance in the body, to produce a psychological effect.
Drug that blocks the action (physiological effect) of
another drug or naturally occurring substance in the
(Buprenex), which is a semi-synthetic opioid, mixed
narcotic agonist-antagonist that produces a lower degree
of sedation and respiratory depression than other narcotics,
even with high doses.
reduces the craving for heroin.
is long-acting and needs to be taken orally every second
if used with Naltrexone.
(levomethadyl acetate hydrochloride) is a synthetic
opiate that blocks neural receptors, which process
heroin. LAAM, taken orally metabolizes slowly and needs
to be taken 3 times per week.
is easier to withdraw from than methadone and works best
if combined with naltrexone.
(Trexan) is a narcotic antagonist related to Narcan
and is used for complete or partial reversal of narcotic
(Darvon) is an analgesic/narcotic, ý to 1/3 as
potent as codeine and is used experimentally to suppress
a combination of tree bark, leaves, and various plants
found in Vietnam. A construction worker invented it after
his father and brother died from opiate addictions. There
is a claim that it can cure a heroin addiction in three
days and is currently undergoing testing by the United
Nations Development Program.
not a narcotic agonist or antagonist (researchers are
still unsure of its action) and it was initially developed
in the ’60s to treat alcoholism.
is used with Naloxone (Narcan) to lessen withdrawal symptoms.
It is cleared from the body within a few hours, but depresses
opiate intake for up to several weeks.
Trials are a new approach due to increasing number
of heroin overdose deaths around the world. The idea
is to provide clean, pure, safe dosages to heroin addicts.
Heroin is shorter-acting and easier to withdraw from
+ Dopamine Agonist
bingeing blocks dopamine reabsorption by nerve cells,
and may alter levels of dynorphin A, a natural opioid.
Dynorphine A also seems to affect dopamine levels.
that mimics Dynorphine A may help treat cocaine addiction
and researchers have discovered a peptide called E-2078
that creates steady blood levels of dopamine, instead
of the ups and downs of cocaine. A combination of E-2078
and a dopamine agonist may be a possible solution to
research is being done.
Agonist (e.g. Levodopa) acts in the brain by increasing
the dopamine concentration or by enhancing neurotransmission
Tea/Leaves (precursor to cocaine) are used to control
craving and prevent relapse. There is no rush experienced.
An infusion is made with crushed leaves and steeped
in hot water and drank or leaves are chewed which releases
some of the drug.
with cocaine for the same binding sites in adults. It
provides the same rush, but lasts longer (90 min compared
with 10-20 min) than cocaine.
the face of rising Hepatitis C and HIV rates among IDUs,
the idea of safe supervised injection facility has been
developed. It would provide a clean, protected environment
for people to use their drugs and sterile equipment and
medical personnel would be available.
is not a solution to drug use, but rather reduces the
sites tried in other countries have been successful in
reducing the rates of new transmissions. A number of
individuals have established treatment connections through
the safe sites.
is a method of harm reduction that has occurred in the
UK for the past several years. The idea is to prescribe
heroin as a substitute to the drugs that people may be
seeking on the street. This is turn helps to stabilize
people and decrease crime and high-risk activities associated
to the drug seeking.